Fortification and Military Structures

Fort Santiago

Falsabraga de Santa Barbara: Named after St. Barbara, patroness of the artillery corps, probably built ca. 1739.

Plataforma de Santa Barbara: Level area to mount artillery, probably part of the oldest section of Fort Santiago.

Falsabraga Media Naranja: Called media naranja because its plan is a semi-circle, or picturesquely, half an orange.

Medio Bastión de San Francisco: Called medio bastion because it lacks a full flank.

Baluartillo (Bastión) de San Francisco: Named after St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order.

Reducto (Fortín) de San Francisco: Named after St. Francis of Assisi, this is an independent outer fortification and connected to the main walls by a walkway.

Bastión Hererias Maestranza: Named after two adjacent structures: the royal foundry (Hererias) and the royal armory (Maestranza) located beside Plaza Militar.

Bastión de San Lorenzo: Named after St. Lawrence the Martyr.
The City

Baluartillo de San Juan: Named after St. John the Baptist on whose feast, 24 June 1571, the City of Manila was founded.

Bastión de San José: Named after St. Joseph, the foster father of Jesus.

Reducto (Fortín) de San Pedro: Named after St. Peter the Apostle, this is an independent outer fortification and connected to the main walls by a walkway.

Bastión de San Diego: Named after St. James the Great (aka San Iago, Santiago). Probably built around an older fortification erected by Sedeño in the late 16th century, named Nuestra Señora de Guia (Our Lady of Guidance) after a hermitage and church in Ermita, which it faced.. Presently, the bastion is an archaelogical site where three rings of stone connected by crossways were unearthed. Most opine that one of these rings was Sedeño’s fort. It is known that the fort was integrated into the Bastion between 1591-94 when Gov. Perez de Dasmariñas built the stone perimeter of the City of Manila.

Bastión Plano de Santa Isabél: Named after St. Elizabeth, the mother of the Virgin Mary.

Baluartillo de San Eugenio : Baluartillo, meaning a small bastion, named after San Eugene. This also an archaelogical site.

Revellin de la Puerta Real de Bagumbayan: An outer fortification built to protect the Royal gate built after the British occupation of Manila 1762-64. The ravellin housed an aquarium in the 20th century. The ravelin faced the native settlement of Bagumbayan (new village), whose site is now occupied by Luneta Park.

Bastión de San Andrés: Named after St. Andrew, brother of St. Peter the Apostle, proclaimed patron of Manila after the attack by the Chinese Limahong in 1574.

Revellin de Recoletos: An outer defense to protect the gate near the church of the Recollects.

Bastión de San Francisco de Dilao: Named Dilao because it faced the district of Dilao, a Japanese enclave, east of the walls. Dilao’s original site was probably where San Marcelno Street is. The district was transferred to Paco, and residences demolished after the British had left Manila in 1764. The bastion is named after St. Francis of Assisi because it was near the twin churches of the Franciscans: Our Lady of the Angels and the VOT (Venerable Orden Tercera) church.

Revellin de Parian: Protected the gate with the same name and led to the Parian, the Chinese district outside the walls. This ravelin replaced an older type of fortification called tenaza (tenaille). The tenaza was uncovered during the restoration of the ravelin but was buried again beneath stone work.

Bastión de San Gabriel: Named after the Archangel Gabriel.

Bastión de Santo Domingo: Named because of its close proximity to the Dominican compound. The bastion and the walls flanking it were demolished in the 20th century to allow easy access to the docks along the Pasig River.

Puerta Real: The Royal gate, ceremonial gate used by the governor general and the archbishop of Manila; transferred to its present site in 1780.

Parian: Gate facing Manila’s Chinese quarters, site of much commerce; later served as Puerta Real after 1780.

Isabel II: Last gate to be built (1861) in honor of Queen Isabel II.

(Magallanes): Small gate along the Pasig replaced by Puerta Isabel II.

Sto. Domingo: Built near the Dominican compound, the gate and the bastion named Santo Domingo were demolished in 1904 to open the city to commerce along the Pasig.

Almacenes: Opened to the Pasig, located between the Intendencia and Fort Santiago, demolished in 1904.

Postigo: Postern gate, used as an emergency exit. The gate opened to Manila Bay.

Sta. Lucia: This gate which opened to Manila Bay was demolished during World War II to allow for the easy access of troops. It was rebuilt following original plans. The bridge leading to the gate and part of the moat has been restored.

Curtain wall: Aka cortina, referred to straight walls connecting bastions.

Barracks and Military Structures

Military buildings

Hospital Militar: Located near the Monasterio de Sta. Clara

Cuarteles de Santa Lucia: Located near the Santa Lucia gate, this was a military barracks built in the 19th century. The structure was ruined by war but the walls were cleaned and consolidated by the military. It now serves as a park.

Capilla Militar: Dedicated to the Incarnation of Jesus, the military chapel faced Plaza Militar, immediately outside Fort Santiago.

Plaza Militar: An open area in front of Fort Santiago used for military parades


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